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Water utilities are at risk to a host of threats. In the United States, much attention has been placed on physical security of drinking water systems, particularly following the passage of the Bioterrorism Act of 2002 that required each large utility to complete a vulnerability assessment. Likewise, much research has gone into development of tools and protocols for contaminant warning systems in recent years. One area that is becoming increasingly important is the cyber security of water systems, as all utilities have a complex and increasing level of connectivity for their physical assets, their enterprise assets, and their control systems.

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