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The deliberate introduction of chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) agents into drinking water distribution systems may result in contaminated water and pipe surface deposits including biofilms. Contrary to water, biofilms are not easily removed from a drinking water distribution system using conventional pipe flushing or cleaning methods, because biofilms grow within the boundary laminar layer at the pipe wall and remain largely unaffected from shear. Due to the ubiquity of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems, acting as a potential sorbent for CBRN contaminants, the implementation of effective biofilm removing by pipe cleaning methods is essential.

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