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The chapter reflects the increasing interest in learning from the structure–function relations of trees and wood for the design of bio‐inspired materials. It reviews tree and wood design principles at all hierarchical length scales which are and could be potentially of interest for a biomimetic transfer. Finally, intrinsic flaws of wood in application are discussed. Such flaws are mainly a consequence of the transition of wood as a biological material in the living tree to an engineering material in structures. To make wood more durable and dimensionally stable biomimetic approaches are suggested, taking heartwood formation as an example.

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