Detection Challenges in Clinical Diagnostics
CHAPTER 3: Blood‐Glucose Biosensors, Development and Challenges
Published:23 Sep 2013
Special Collection: 2013 ebook collection , 2011-2015 analytical chemistry subject collectionSeries: Detection Science
Yuan Wang, Madeleine Hu, 2013. "Blood‐Glucose Biosensors, Development and Challenges", Detection Challenges in Clinical Diagnostics, Pankaj Vadgama, Serban Peteu
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Diabetes mellitus is one of the major causes of premature illness and death worldwide. The World Health Organization estimated that by 2030, 439 million people, corresponding to 7.8% of the world adult population, will live with diabetes. With an increasing diabetic population, a Blood Glucose Monitoring System (BGMS) is becoming an ever important tool for diabetes management. The history of blood biosensor development can be traced back to 1932, when Warburg and Christian reported the “yellow enzyme” from yeast changed to colorless upon oxidizing its substrate and resumed the yellow color after its oxidation by oxygen. Since then a lot of research and development has taken place on blood glucose sensors, and the biosensor technology has gone through three generations, with the current commercially available BGMS predominantly relies on the second generation of technology. The advantages and challenges of each generation are discussed. This chapter will examine in detail topics covering the areas of electrode substrate and electrode material selection, fluid detection electrode, reaction chamber, chemistry (electrolyte, polymer, enzyme and mediator), detection method, analytical performance, regulatory requirements and the manufacturing process. The chapter will close with the clinical utility and future direction and application of glucose biosensor include a brief introduction to the Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring System (CGMS).