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Thermoelectric effects are the physical principles that are used to directly convert heat into electricity or vice versa based on charge carrier and phonon transport phenomena in a solid.1–8  When a temperature gradient is imposed on a solid, an electric potential is created due to the redistribution of charge carriers in the material. This phenomenon is called the Seebeck effect. The reverse phenomenon, in which a temperature difference is created across a material by an electric current due to the lattice cooling or heating at the interfaces, is called the Peltier effect. These two effects can be used in various power generation and refrigeration applications via the thermal-to-electric (or vice versa) energy conversion.

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