Chapter 8: Novel Lab-on-a-Chip Sensing Systems: Applications of Optical, Electrochemical, and Piezoelectric Transduction in Bioanalysis
Published:24 Oct 2014
A. J. Tavares, S. Doughan, M. O. Noor, M. V. DaCosta, P. A. E. Piunno, and U. J. Krull, in Microfluidics in Detection Science, ed. F. H. Labeed and H. O. Fatoyinbo, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, ch. 8, pp. 224-269.
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The integration of novel transduction strategies into lab-on-a-chip (LOC) platforms allows for sensors that are cost effective, field portable, easy to use, and amenable to automation. Alongside the unabated interest in functional nanoparticles (NPs), countless new sensors have been designed for bioanalyses ranging from small molecule toxins to complex biomolecular targets such as proteins and nucleic acids that are markers of pathogens or disease. Furthermore, the unique properties of NPs have provided for new detection modalities that are well suited to miniaturisation. Herein we describe recent developments and application of novel LOC biosensors that operate using optical, electrochemical, and piezoelectric techniques. Focus is given to examples of sensors that incorporate NPs into their detection strategy. A brief theoretical description of the many transduction methods is provided and examples from recent literature are used to highlight the application of each detection method in the field. The chapter concludes with a prospective outlook on future directions for LOC biosensing.