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RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology


Paul O’Brien FRS, University of Manchester, UK

Series Editors:

Ralph Nuzzo, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA

Joao Rocha, University of Aveiro, Portugal

Xiaogang Liu, National University of Singapore, Singapore

Honorary Series Editor:

Sir Harry Kroto FRS, University of Sussex, UK

Titles in the Series:

1: Nanotubes and Nanowires

2: Fullerenes: Principles and Applications

3: Nanocharacterisation

4: Atom Resolved Surface Reactions: Nanocatalysis

5: Biomimetic Nanoceramics in Clinical Use: From Materials to Applications

6: Nanofluidics: Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

7: Bionanodesign: Following Nature's Touch

8: Nano-Society: Pushing the Boundaries of Technology

9: Polymer-based Nanostructures: Medical Applications

10: Metallic and Molecular Interactions in Nanometer Layers, Pores and Particles: New Findings at the Yoctolitre Level

11: Nanocasting: A Versatile Strategy for Creating Nanostructured Porous Materials

12: Titanate and Titania Nanotubes: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

13: Raman Spectroscopy, Fullerenes and Nanotechnology

14: Nanotechnologies in Food

15: Unravelling Single Cell Genomics: Micro and Nanotools

16: Polymer Nanocomposites by Emulsion and Suspension

17: Phage Nanobiotechnology

18: Nanotubes and Nanowires: 2nd Edition

19: Nanostructured Catalysts: Transition Metal Oxides

20: Fullerenes: Principles and Applications, 2nd Edition

21: Biological Interactions with Surface Charge Biomaterials

22: Nanoporous Gold: From an Ancient Technology to a High-Tech Material

23: Nanoparticles in Anti-Microbial Materials: Use and Characterisation

24: Manipulation of Nanoscale Materials: An Introduction to Nanoarchitectonics

25: Towards Efficient Designing of Safe Nanomaterials: Innovative Merge of Computational Approaches and Experimental Techniques

26: Polymer–Graphene Nanocomposites

27: Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites

28: Nanoscience for the Conservation of Works of Art

29: Polymer Nanofibers: Building Blocks for Nanotechnology

30: Artificial Cilia

31: Nanodiamond

How to obtain future titles on publication:

A standing order plan is available for this series. A standing order will bring delivery of each new volume immediately on publication.

For further information please contact:

Book Sales Department, Royal Society of Chemistry, Thomas Graham House,

Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge, CB4 0WF, UK

Telephone: +44 (0)1223 420066, Fax: +44 (0)1223 420247

Visit our website at


Edited by

Oliver Williams

Cardiff School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen's Buildings, Cardiff


RSC Nanoscience & Nanotechnology No. 31

ISBN: 978-1-84973-639-8

ISSN: 1757-7136

A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

© The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014

All rights reserved

Apart from fair dealing for the purposes of research for non-commercial purposes or for private study, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 and the Copyright and Related Rights Regulations 2003, this publication may not be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, without the prior permission in writing of The Royal Society of Chemistry or the copyright owner, or in the case of reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK, or in accordance with the terms of the licences issued by the appropriate Reproduction Rights Organization outside the UK. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the terms stated here should be sent to The Royal Society of Chemistry at the address printed on this page.

The RSC is not responsible for individual opinions expressed in this work.

Published by The Royal Society of Chemistry,

Thomas Graham House, Science Park, Milton Road,

Cambridge CB4 0WF, UK

Registered Charity Number 207890

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