Catalytic Hydrogenation for Biomass Valorization
CHAPTER 9: Biofuels Generation via Hydroconversion of Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats
Published:13 Nov 2014
J. Roberto Gomes, S. Bezergianni, J. L. Zotin, and E. F. Sousa-Aguiar, in Catalytic Hydrogenation for Biomass Valorization, ed. R. Rinaldi, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2014, pp. 204-222.
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Hydroconversion processes of vegetable oils and animal fats are undergoing a rapid development, since the hydroprocessing of hydrocarbon streams (e.g. petroleum, mineral coal or shale oil), is already present in existing refineries with different purposes, such as sulfur removal or upgrading of heavier streams. As far as the coprocessing technologies are concerned, some have also been tested and used in industrial units. The coprocessing poses no problem to the integrity of the catalytic fixed bed of the HDT unit, simultaneously increasing the yield of hydrotreated liquid products by selective hydroconversion of triglycerides into n-paraffins. This chapter provides an overview of the most significant industrial progress to produce biofuels from vegetable oils via hydroprocessing. An indepth industrial analysis of the reaction steps and processes in current development by the major global oil companies is given.