Electrochemical Strategies in Detection Science
Chapter 6: Nanoelectrodes in Electrochemical Analysis
Published:12 Oct 2015
Electrochemical analysis is of particular interest as it enables the rapid detection of numerous analytes with high sensitivity and at low cost. Nanoelectrodes have opened up new research domains and application opportunities in many areas of electroanalysis, in the environment, health, and security sectors. The potential use of nanoelectrodes in a wide range of electrochemical applications has received increased interest worldwide due to the many accrued benefits from working at the nanoscale. However, there are also potential challenges associated with these electrodes. A complete understanding of the electrochemical processes, in terms of diffusion and mass transport, electron transfer kinetics, and the effects of electrode geometry and material composition, is required for sensors to be optimized for real-world applications. There is a need to develop new theoretical models that will accurately describe pulse voltammetric techniques at three-dimensional electrode structures, allowing more informed decisions on electrode geometry and design. This chapter discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using nanoelectrodes in electrochemical analysis; nanoelectrode design, fabrication, and characterisation; and recent and potential future developments in this field.