CHAPTER 5: Biomaterials: Incorporating ECM-Derived Molecular Features into Biomaterials
Published:18 Nov 2015
K. A. Kilian, in Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix: The Intersection of Matrix Biology and Biomaterials, ed. G. A. Hudalla and W. L. Murphy, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2015, pp. 161-194.
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The extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding cells in tissue is a rich composite of proteins, proteoglycans and minerals that serve to provide structure and direct cellular and tissue level functions. Recapitulating aspects of this architecture ex vivo is important for fabricating interfaces to biology in applications ranging from hard implant materials to biosensors to three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this chapter, we explore the diverse means by which researchers aim to fabricate biomaterials that contain features of the ECM. We first discuss common materials including proteins and polysaccharides that are isolated from natural sources followed by strategies to stabilize defined architectures and further functionalize these components. Integrating natural materials into synthetic scaffolds—through mixing and via bioconjugation approaches—is presented as a means to improve functionality. We close the chapter with a discussion of biomimetic strategies using recombinant DNA, self-assembly and hydrogel scaffolds formed through modular short bioactive peptides. Integrating these approaches is paving the way to next-generation biomaterials that emulate the function of native ECMs.