Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix: The Intersection of Matrix Biology and Biomaterials
CHAPTER 10: Biomaterials: Supramolecular Artificial Extracellular Matrices
Published:18 Nov 2015
Special Collection: RSC eTextbook CollectionProduct Type: Textbooks
Gregory A. Hudalla, Joel H. Collier, 2015. "Biomaterials: Supramolecular Artificial Extracellular Matrices", Mimicking the Extracellular Matrix: The Intersection of Matrix Biology and Biomaterials, Gregory A Hudalla, William L Murphy
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As exemplified in the preceding chapters, natural extracellular matrices (ECMs) are hierarchically organized scaffolds comprised of multiple different biomolecules. The various biomolecules inherent to a natural ECM harbor an assortment of “cell-instructive” or “cell-responsive” features, which mediate cell attachment to the matrix, modulate molecular transport through the matrix, facilitate matrix turnover, or guide matrix assembly, in both space and time. These cell-instructive and cell-responsive features work in concert to modulate diverse cell behaviors, including migration, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, which underlie countless developmental, regenerative, and pathological processes. There is a rich history of creating artificial ECMs (aECMs) that can similarly instruct cell behavior by integrating cell-instructive or cell-responsive features into natural or synthetic biomaterials, many of which have been introduced in the preceding chapters. Multifunctional biomaterials having combinations of cell-instructive and cell-responsive features are gaining increased attention as aECMs, yet integrating combinations of features alone is insufficient for recapitulating the properties of natural ECMs. Rather, aECMs that can provide exquisitely controlled ratios of integrated functional ligands, independently tunable ligand composition, and hierarchically organized ligand presentation are necessary. Toward that end, this chapter will provide a detailed look at current progress in developing aECMs via hierarchical assembly of engineered biomolecules, with a specific focus on bottom-up assembly of engineered peptides into multicomponent fibrillar networks.