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The absorption of calcium (Ca2+) from the gastrointestinal tract occurs through two distinct routes and is influenced by vitamin D (1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol). The paracellular pathway describes the permeable movement of Ca2+ ions from the intestinal lumen into the blood through tight junctions. In contrast, the transcellular pathway is the sequential movement of Ca2+ ions from the intestinal lumen into the cytoplasm of the enterocyte, transport of apical Ca2+ to the basolateral side of the cell, followed by energy-dependent extrusion into the blood. These complementary pathways work to ensure optimal calcium absorption from the intestine independent of lumenal calcium concentration.

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