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Peptides are time-honored substances, ubiquitous in nature and useful in many fields, from argriculture as pestisides, in medicine as antibacteria and antifugal drugs founded in the innate immune systems, to medicinal chemistry as hornmones However, the concept of peptide materials did not come to mind until 1990 when a self-assembling peptide as a repeating segment in a yeast protein was serendipitously discovered. As it was called, the materials peptide since they have bona fide materials property and are made from simple amino acids with amazing nanostructures under physiological conditions. These structures include well-ordered nanofibers, nanotubes and nanovesicles. These structures have been used for 3D tissue cell cultures of primary cells and stem cells, sustained releases of small molecules, growth factors and monoclonal antibody, for accelerated-wound healing in reparative and regenerative medicine as well as tissue engineering. Recent advances in molecular designs have also led to the development of 3D fine-tuned bioactive tissue culture scaffolds. They are also used to stabilize membrane proteins including difficult G-protein coupled receptors for designing nanobiodevices. One of self-assembling peptides has been used in human clinical trials for accelerated-wound healings. It is likely that these peptide materials will open doors for more and more diverse uses. The field of self-assembling peptide materials is growing in a number of directions in areas of materials, synthetic biology, clinical medicine and beyond.

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