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Musculoskeletal conditions are major causes of disease burden around the world. The treatment of congenital skeletal lesions, bone tumors, degenerative osteoarthropathies, metabolic imbalances, and fractures often require extensive bone reconstruction. Bone graft and artificial implants are being extensively used for bone stock replacement, although biological reconstruction would offer several advantages. Fortunately, bone tissue has the ability to regenerate, and this peculiar feature can be advantageously exploited. A thorough knowledge of the multiplex factors underlining the bone healing process, including osteogenic cells and growth factors, is mandatory to translate in vitro and in vivo studies into a clinical setting. This chapter provides an overview of the biology of bone regeneration and some examples of clinical trials where this knowledge has been translated into practice.

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