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Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by intracellular protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and affects approximately 12 million people in 88 countries. The most common form of the disease is Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) presenting as skin sores that may appear weeks to months after the person has been bitten by the Dipteran phlebotomine sandfly vector. This chapter discusses the emerging role of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of CL in the broader context of other standard approaches. While for the most part, our focus is on the cutaneous form of the disease, we end the chapter with a more forward-looking section where treatment strategies for both the cutaneous and visceral forms of the diseases are discussed briefly.

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