Unravelling Single Cell Genomics
An Introduction to Molecular Biology
Published:18 Oct 2010
Special Collection: 2010 ebook collection , 2010 ebook collection , 2010 materials and nanoscience subject collectionSeries: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
Luce Dauphinot, 2010. "An Introduction to Molecular Biology", Unravelling Single Cell Genomics, Jean-Christophe Baret, Bruno Cauli, Max Chabert, Valerie Abecassis-Taly, Petra Dittrich, Emmanuel Fort, Christoph Klein, Joel Lachuer, Bertrand Lambolez, Nicholas Le Novere, Severine le Gac, Laili Mahmoudian, Yann Marcy, Bernhard Polzer, Joelle Vinh, Tania Vitalis, Nathalie Bontoux, Marie-Claude Potier, Luce Dauphinot, Harold Craighead, Harry Kroto, Paul O'Brien, Royal Society of Chemistry
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The cell constitutes the basic structure of all living organisms (cellula in latin means small chamber). The typical diameter of a cell is 10–100 micrometers (μm), its volume around 10 picoliters (pl) and its mass around 1 nanogram (ng).
Cells can be divided in two main groups. Prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, lack nucleus and are unicellular organism, characterized by a relatively simple organization with only one compartment containing a circular DNA molecule. Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a nucleus and a cytoplasm containing many sub-cellular compartments. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear envelope with nuclear pores that allow the transport of macromolecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The DNA molecule is localized inside the nucleus and organized in chromosomes. Some eukaryote organisms are unicellular such as yeasts, but the most part are pluricellular, with the most complex organism being human, with more than 10 000 billion cells.