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Four approaches i.e. nanozymes, paper, 3D printing and conducting polymer hydrogel extensively utilized for the development of electrochemical sensors are discussed in this chapter. Brief back ground, fundamentals and techniques involved, and wide spectrum of applications demonstrated so far are explained for each approach. Exhaustive literature citation is not done because of the page restrictions and that is not the objective. This chapter introduces the reader to the recent & advanced, widely adopted & applied approaches to design electrochemical sensors. Over the five years plethora of articles appeared on these topics and recently published articles are preferred. Majority of nanozymes based electrochemical biosensors and environmental sensors are covered. In case of paper and 3D printing based approaches, research articles published in the year 2020 are considered. 3D printing technology emerged as the future electrochemical sensor fabrication technology is still at its infancy. Hence, restricted to few pages touching upon maximum sensing applications appeared in 2019 and 2020. Conducting polymer hydrogel based electrochemical sensors are restricted for enzymatic biosensing and chemical sensing applications.

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