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There is an urgent need to reduce the burgeoning carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, usually caused by burning fossil fuels, and convert it into products that could be used in generating renewable energy. The global use of fossil-based non-renewable fuels is being diminished as more green and sustainable methods are being employed for energy production in recent years. Among others, microbial electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide using bioelectrochemical systems is a promising emerging technology for renewable energy storage into chemical energy as fuels. To increase the production rate of such fuels, factors such as the electrode material for biofilm development, system architecture, and electron delivery become crucial for the setup of the system. It is believed that many electrocatalytic pathways must work in combination to produce high-quality chemical products. The economics of incorporating the electrocatalysis pathway in the entire chemical supply chain is based on the cost and availability of renewable electricity, feedstock, and petrochemical traditional manufactures. To commercialize this novel process, more scientific studies are required to improve and optimize these systems. The challenges that these technologies pose can easily be overcome due to the advances in recent years with this technology.

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