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The surface chemistry of carbon materials dictates their properties and therefore their utility depends on surface properties in various fields. Surface modification of these carbon materials resulted in enhancing the properties like solubility, biocompatibility, anticorrosion, optical properties and their electronic microstructures. This open up the window of these materials to use as catalysts and catalyst supports, electrode materials in energy storage, conversion and energy harvesting systems, antibacterial agents, biocompatible material in drug delivery systems, electrode modifiers in electrochemical sensors and in optoelectronic applications. Each of the above mentioned applications demands specific properties along with inherent conducting, porous and other desired optoelectronic properties of carbon materials. In order to enhance the surface properties of carbon and make it suitable material for specific applications covalent functionalization is one of the most researched approach. Covalent functionalization of carbon substrates with modifiers offers strong, stable and permanent surface properties for longer periods. The present report illustrated the reported approaches for covalent functionalization of carbon, their short comes, advantages and their applications in various fields.

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