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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of damage in DNA that can originate from either photochemical reactions triggered by absorption of photons by DNA bases or oxidation processes mostly induced by photosensitization. The nature of DNA damage is dependent on numerous factors such as wavelength, sequence, chromatin structure and cell type. The present chapter provides a summary of the available quantitative information of the yield of UV-induced DNA damage as well as the most recent information based on state-of-the-art techniques such as next generation sequencing. The mutational consequences of the DNA photoproducts are briefly discussed.

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