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This review covers the last 15 years of the development of EPR in vivo oxygen imaging. During this time, a number of major technological and methodological advances have taken place. Narrow line width, long relaxation time, and non-toxic triaryl methyl radicals were introduced in the late 1990s. These not only improved continuous wave (CW) imaging, but also enabled the application of pulse EPR imaging to animals. Recent developments in pulse technology have brought an order of magnitude increase in image acquisition speed, enhancement of sensitivity, and considerable improvement in the precision and accuracy of oxygen measurements. Consequently, pulse methods take up a significant part of this review.

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