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Lithium ion battery-powered applications are rapidly increasing, especially for larger systems which include energy storage and some types of vehicles. Mass production capability exists for batteries but fuel cells are still made on a small scale. The global capacity for the industrial-scale production of large lithium ion battery cells or fuel cell systems is more likely to be the limiting factor than the shortage of natural resources if current plans for even partial electrification of vehicles or energy storage visions are to be realized. Strategic metals such as lithium, cobalt, platinum and rare earth metals are still readily available and current activities use relative small amounts. The recycling of valuable metals from both batteries and fuel cells is essential and opens up possibilities for the development of new technologies.

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