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The goal of sustainable water splitting is to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water using only renewable energy inputs. The hydrogen can then be stored and recombined with oxygen later, giving energy and water as the only products. Hence water splitting can be seen as an environmentally friendly way of turning intermittent energy sources such as solar power and wind energy into storable fuels. As the dissociation of water into H2 and O2 does not happen spontaneously, energy must be supplied for this reaction to occur. In this chapter, we investigate materials that facilitate the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen, paying particular attention to those that use only Earth-abundant elements, as opposed to rare or expensive constituents such as platinum.

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