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Romania is located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. In Romania, some areas located in Transylvania (northwestern Romania), such as Baia Mare and Copsa Mica, suffer from environmental contamination with heavy metals (lead etc.) related to the nonferrous metallurgical industry.

A series of studies were carried out in Copsa Mica, focusing on lead poisoning in young children (2002–2009). Based on the information collected, a monitoring and intervention program was elaborated and implemented in order to reduce lead exposure among young children by interrupting the exposure pathways (preventing access to soil and dust).

In Baia Mare, a lead screening program funded by the Ministry of Health was conducted by the Public Health Department in Baia Mare, supervised by the Institute of Public Health in Bucharest, under the auspicious of the implemented European Union (EU) Lead Directive. The susceptible population groups included in the study were pregnant women and young children, and the results showed that lead poisoning is still a major issue among young children in Baia Mare.

The northwestern part of Romania (counties Arad, Bihor and Timis) has geogenic inorganic arsenic contamination of the drinking water sources. The studies carried out in the area between 1992 and 2004 highlighted low to medium exposure to arsenic via drinking water in the population groups living in the northwestern part of Romania.

In the future, Romania should focus on developing and applying methods of standardization and quality control in human biomonitoring (HBM) and health-related environmental changes, to facilitate harmonization of HBM measurements, and to control and standardize access in the region.

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