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In the vast geographic and diverse socio-demographic Canadian context, a multipronged strategy to obtain adequate human biomonitoring coverage is necessary. Although there have been several previous Canadian human biomonitoring activities, this chapter describes four major current biomonitoring initiatives: 1) the nationally representative Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS), 2) the Canada-wide Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study, 3) the research and community-based Northern Contaminants Program (NCP), and 4) mercury biomonitoring of First Nations people living on reserves south of the 60th parallel. While distinct approaches are required depending on the target population, taken together these initiatives provide a reasonable overview of current exposures to environmental chemicals and contribute to the development of policies and programs to protect the health of Canadians.

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