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Human biomonitoring studies form an association between exposure to pollutant and effect in the population. Low-level, long-term exposures sometimes go undetected in human studies. The multivariate data obtained in human monitoring studies have complex relationships with factors influencing the results of the study. The Indian population has varied characteristics in terms of ethnicity, climate, diet, socio-economic strata, and migration for work. This, together with the lack of regulatory implementation, imposes challenges in population studies.

Human biomonitoring studies in India in recent years have used conventional as well as new techniques to assess various biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility. The current scenario employing different biomarkers in human monitoring studies in the Indian population has been discussed.

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