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Studying the general conditions in the current European Union (EU) regulative and ethical framework together with a critical analysis of research experiences in various EU countries shows that difficulties, ambiguities or even inconsistencies exist in the way ethical and juridical challenges are being dealt with in transnational research. Diverse domestic implementations of EU regulations or international guidelines may hinder transnational research and bring about inequalities in the level of protection throughout different countries. This chapter presents some forthcoming challenges and proposes steps to solutions, regarding for example communication, secondary use and exchange of data. One major proposition to achieve more consistency in the research conditions nationally and internationally is that an ethics committee at the level of the ‘European research area’ could be envisaged, mainly focusing on transnational research. Analysis and evaluation of different cases in different situations would build up extensive knowledge and experience that may serve as an inspiring starting point for a well informed societal debate. This way, gradually, more consistency in the handling of study proposals and increased transparency in decision making might be reached, lifting the daily practices and the protection of both individual and community interest to a higher level of meeting up with ethical concerns in transnational research.

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