20: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy
Published:11 May 2017
A. F. Lee, C. M. A. Parlett, and K. Wilson, in Contemporary Catalysis: Science, Technology, and Applications, ed. P. C. J. Kamer, D. Vogt, and J. Thybaut, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017, pp. 496-512.
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X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is a key tool for the quantitative analysis of surface composition and oxidation state, and universally employed in academic and commercial settings to improve the design of heterogeneous catalysts. This section outlines the principles and application of XPS as a versatile, chemically specific analytical tool to determine the electronic structure and near surface composition of constituent elements within industrially relevant catalytic materials.