2: Feedstocks and Renewable Resources
Published:11 May 2017
J. G. de Vries, P. J. Deuss, and K. Barta, in Contemporary Catalysis: Science, Technology, and Applications, ed. P. C. J. Kamer, D. Vogt, and J. Thybaut, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017, pp. 29-73.
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First, this chapter provides a systematic overview of basic feedstocks used in the petrochemical industry. The most important bulk chemicals derived from the important C2, C3, and C4 building blocks, as well as BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene), and the corresponding catalytic methods are presented. Furthermore, the use of coal and natural gas is discussed. The second part of this chapter will give a short introduction on the importance of renewable resources and the biorefinery concept; the focus will be on the three main categories of biomass resources: carbohydrate-based feedstocks, lignin and triglycerides. We look at the structure and reactivity of these materials with special emphasis on catalytic methods and important platform chemicals. Finally, thermal methods such as pyrolysis and gasification are briefly explained.