21: Bulk X-Ray Techniques
Published:11 May 2017
A. F. Lee, C. M. A. Parlett, and K. Wilson, in Contemporary Catalysis: Science, Technology, and Applications, ed. P. C. J. Kamer, D. Vogt, and J. Thybaut, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017, pp. 513-524.
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Methods to characterise the local and extended geometric structure of heterogeneous catalysts are also critical to their development and application. One of the most widely used techniques to assess the crystallinity of solids is Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), which offers a powerful means to identify crystalline phases and their associated lattice strain and disorder, and the average crystallite size of powdered materials.