Nanotoxicology: Experimental and Computational Perspectives
Chapter 4: Protocols for In vitro and In vivo Toxicity Assessment of Engineered Nanoparticles
Published:03 Nov 2017
A. Kumar, V. Aileen Senapati, and A. Dhawan, in Nanotoxicology: Experimental and Computational Perspectives, ed. A. Dhawan, D. Anderson, and R. Shanker, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2017, ch. 4, pp. 94-132.
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Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are being incorporated into many fields, from paints, automobile, consumer products to biology and medicine. Although there is an increase in the prevalence of ENPs, there is a dearth of knowledge of the impacts of ENPs on human and environmental health. The potential toxicity of ENPs has given birth to the field of nanotoxicology, encompassing the study of different types of toxicity on exposure to ENPs. The risk assessment paradigm also determines the dose–response relationship and the extent to which humans or the environment are expected to be exposed to ENPs. It also includes the mechanisms by which ENPs induce adverse reactions. There is a need to assess the potential harmful effects of ENPs for their safe production and use. Therefore, the present chapter describes the techniques and protocols used in the assessment of the cytotoxicity, cell death, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity and oxidative stress parameters induced by ENPs in in vitro and in vivo systems.