Solar Energy Capture Materials
CHAPTER 4: Solution-processed Solar Cells: Perovskite Solar Cells
Published:19 Aug 2019
Solar cells based on monovalent alkali or organic A-cation, divalent metal B-cation and monovalent halide anion (ABX3) perovskite semiconductors are emerging as a fast-growing research area with substantial technological potential. Discovered as an absorber in dye-sensitised solar cells, a range of processing strategies developed for printed organic photovoltaics have been used to deposit ABX3 solar cells from solutions. ABX3 semiconductors have comparable optoelectronic properties to GaAs and so far are the best solution-processed solar cell technology for small-area test devices. As device performances are comparable with other thin-film solar cell technologies, ABX3-based solar cells are reaching the phase of being evaluated for their potential in large-scale use for solar energy conversion. This chapter highlights the technological potential arising from the solution-processability of ABX3 materials. Recent insights into how ABX3 solution chemistry and lead–halide–solvent structural intermediates during film formation define the thin-film morphology of solution-processed ABX3 devices are discussed. Gaining control over film formation is a prerequisite to achieve further progress in scaling ABX3 devices to larger areas with solution-based processing methods. Apart from developing scalable process technology, rationalising material degradation pathways is of paramount importance, to make reliable predictions of device stability. Concerns regarding the potential ecotoxicity of lead-based materials has inspired the search for the next generation of ABX3-derived materials with similar favourable optoelectronic properties such as their solution-processability and defect tolerance.