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This chapter examines the risks associated with anti-animal weapons and the impact of advances in science and technology. There is very little evidence of chemical weapons programmes specifically targeting animals. In comparison, there has been a long history of offensive anti-animal bioweapon programmes. A brief overview of these programmes demonstrates that targeting animals has been seen as useful, has warranted the investment of significant resources, and resulted in weapons developed and used by both States and non-State actors. The convergence of scientific disciplines (chemistry and biology in particular) makes it timely to consider how a blurring of the lines between the underpinning science could lead to a parallel blurring of the associated weapon systems. For example, recent developments allow the ability to use chemistry to make biological agents, and biology to produce chemicals that could have profound implications for international efforts in preventing the acquisition and use of chemical and biological weapons. This chapter therefore considers anti-animal biochemical weapons across the traditional spectrum covered by both the Chemical Weapons Convention and Biological Weapons Convention. Recent reviews of developments in science and technology have highlighted how such advances have impacted upon the acquisition and use of biological and chemical weapons. This chapter revisits one such recent review and examines, through the lens of anti-animal weapons, how recent advances can be applied to reduce risks, and how they might be misused to increase risks. This is followed by a discussion as to how such developments might impact upon the utility or desirability of such weapons in the future.

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