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This Chapter will provide an overview of the wide variety of contemporary mechanisms that have been developed and/or employed by State and non-State actors to deliver toxic chemicals to specific targets or disperse toxic chemicals over wide areas, for hostile purposes. This Chapter will also explore the adaptation and employment of conventional munitions as chemical weapons, and also the malign application of dual-use technologies in the development of improvised chemical weapons. This Chapter will also employ case studies of such activities to illustrate how continuing technological advances are facilitating the ongoing development and promotion of certain means of delivery and dispersal, with greater payload capacity, wider agent dispersal area and extended strike range; which have led to greater accessibility of such technologies to a broader range of actors, with consequent implications for effective regulation of such technologies.

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