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Traditional chemical weapons such as mustard gas and nerve agents remain the biggest global threat; their pathogenesis is complex, particularly mustard gas and soman poisoning, and thus there has been no suitable means of prevention and treatment developed to date. In the past 10 years, significant research progress on the mechanisms, biomarkers, and drugs for the prevention and treatment of exposure to traditional chemical weapons, such as mustard gas and soman poisoning, has been made as a result of the beneficial impact of the convergence of chemistry and biology. In this chapter, we firstly review recent advances in the mechanism of sulfur mustard (SM) damage to organs mainly involving inflammation, apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress. Secondly, the in vivo study of SM injury-related markers from two aspects of various adducts and inflammatory markers, and in vivo diagnostic biomarkers for nerve agent (NA) poisoning such as toxicant prototypes, hydrolysis products, toxin protein adducts, and other analytical detection methods, are systematically reviewed. Finally, we review research progress on drugs used in the prevention and treatment of SM and NA poisoning.

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