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This chapter explores the full range of potentially applicable international law constraining the ‘weaponization of toxic chemicals’. Firstly, it will look at the prohibitions and restrictions on the weaponization of toxic chemicals imposed by arms control and disarmament treaties (primarily the Chemical Weapons Convention, but also the Geneva Protocol and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention). The chapter will then explore the application of international humanitarian law and the further constraints it imposes on the use of toxic chemicals by combatants engaged in armed conflict. This will be followed by an analysis of international human rights law and the wide-ranging obligations upon States to regulate the use of force (including weapons employing toxic chemicals) by law enforcement officials (potentially covering military and security personnel as well as police and prison officers). Whilst preceding sections concentrate upon international law regulating the activities of States, the final section will address individual responsibility and culpability for crimes involving weaponised toxic chemicals, through the employment of international criminal law.

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