NOx Trap Catalysts and Technologies: Fundamentals and Industrial Applications
Chapter 3: NSR Catalytic Materials
Published:13 Jun 2018
Special Collection: 2018 ebook collection , ECCC Environmental eBooks 1968-2022Series: Catalysis Series
Fabien Can, Xavier Courtois, Daniel Duprez, 2018. "NSR Catalytic Materials", NOx Trap Catalysts and Technologies: Fundamentals and Industrial Applications, Luca Lietti, Lidia Castoldi
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Imagined in the 1990s, the NOx-storage and reduction (NSR) process operates with alternative cycles of long lean phases (NOx storage) and short rich phases (NOx reduction). NSR catalysts should possess at least two components: a basic oxide for trapping the NOx and a metallic component for the NO oxidation and the reduction of stored NOx. The reference material is composed of barium oxide (10–20 wt%) deposited on a Pt/Al2O3 (1–2% Pt). Improvements of NSR catalysts were obtained by changing (i) the basic component (especially potassium but it can also damage the catalyst substrate; other alkaline or alkaline-earth oxides were also envisaged); (ii) the support (especially cerium-based supports, or titania, hydrotalcites, perovskites); (iii) the metal (Rh is often added to improve the NOx reduction, and combinations of precious metals are considered). Noble metal-free catalysts were also developed, mainly based on cobalt, copper or manganese oxides. Perovskites including these transition metal oxides and potassium are also interesting for NSR applications. However, complete replacement of noble metal catalysts cannot be feasible yet. Usual NSR catalysts are sensitive to aging (sintering; strong Ba–support interactions) and to sulphur poisoning but supports like TiO2 or cerium-based oxides can protect the catalyst from stable sulphate adsorption.