(Endo)Fullerenes: From Production to Isolation
Published:31 Oct 2011
Special Collection: 2011 ebook collection , 2011 ebook collection , 2011-2015 materials and nanoscience subject collectionSeries: Nanoscience & Nanotechnology
After a short introduction setting up the history of the C60 discovery from E. Osawa's predictions in the 1970s to H. W. Kroto, R. E. Smalley, R. F. Curl's discovery and Nobel prize in 1996, details are given on the different production methods. Starting from the well-known “Krätschmer–Huffman” arc-discharge method that not only provided practical evidence of the 1985 discovery – and the soccer-ball shape – but also essentially created a new field of scientific study, the chapter details both the combustion process and the chemical synthesis approaches such as pyrolytic dehydro(halo)genation or surface-catalysed cyclodehydrogenation. Emphasis is then given to the isolation and purification techniques of empty fullerenes from C60 to C84. Finally, the production methods of endohedrals are listed.