Nanoparticle–Protein Corona: Biophysics to Biology
CHAPTER 5: An Analytical Approach to Investigate Nanoparticle–Protein Corona Complexes
Published:26 Jul 2019
Nanoparticles possess size-dependent chemical and physical characteristics that enable interesting and correlated approaches for dealing with fundamental biological molecules. Despite the significant development of nanoscience, interactions of nanoscale objects with living systems is less known. When a nanoparticle (NP) encounters a biological fluid, biomolecules spontaneously form adsorption layers around the NP, called a “protein corona” (PC). The corona's composition depends on the time-dependent environmental conditions, which determines the NP's fate within living organisms. The PC consists of two poorly delimited layers, known as the “hard corona” (HC) and “soft corona” (SC), which is affected by the complexity of the environment and the protein–surface equilibrium formed during in vivo blood circulation. This chapter is focused on the investigation of the corona formation of adsorbed proteins around nanoparticles depending on the type of characterization technique. Protein corona–NP complexes are further characterized by integrating information on morphology and also on the structure/composition of the PC. Thus, multi-disciplinary approaches are highlighted in order to obtain much more information about the PC and its properties to fully understand the real impact of the PC on nanoparticles' surface and their various therapeutics applications.