Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications
Chapter 11: Anthocyanins in Colored Cereals: Measurement and Composition
Published:17 Feb 2023
Special Collection: 2023 ebook collection
J. Kour, M. Afreen, L. F. M. Lee Nen That, İ. Uçak, N. Anand, and J. Pandohee, in Pigmented Cereals and Millets
Download citation file:
Anthocyanins are secondary metabolic products made by plants; they are ubiquitous in nature. Anthocyanins are pigments that are soluble in water. Therefore they are widely used in food industry as food colorants. This is advantageous as the food regulatory, food safety and food processing guidelines emphasize the reduction in the use of artificial food colorants. In some cases, for example in the United States, the consumption of anthocyanins has been reported to be 12.5 mg day−1 approximately. Several cereals, such as colored wheat, purple corn, colored barley and red rice are regarded as functional raw materials and natural colorants, thanks to their high anthocyanin content. The composition and content of anthocyanins in pigmented cereals are affected by various abiotic and biotic stresses, such as environmental factors (primarily UV-B light). Increased biotic and abiotic stresses on plants results in the production of anthocyanins. In humans, these anthocyanins have health-promoting properties. Consequently there has been an increase in demand for anthocyanins. As technology advances, instruments such as liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry are widely used to identify and quantify anthocyanins in colored cereals. This chapter will provide an in-depth discussion on the composition and measurement of anthocyanins in colored cereals.