Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications
Chapter 2: Pigmented Rice: Composition and Health Effects
Published:17 Feb 2023
Special Collection: 2023 ebook collection
A. K. Siroha, S. P. Bangar, and S. Suri, in Pigmented Cereals and Millets
Download citation file:
Pigmented rice has attracted major attention because of its higher levels of bioactive compounds and its higher concentration of micro- and macronutrients, compared with white rice. Pigmented rice cultivars are found in various colors i.e. black, purple, red, and brown. Pigmented rice contains good amounts of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and different phytochemicals with beneficial health effects. Pigmented rice is abundant in phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidant compounds. In comparison with white rice varieties, colored rice contains higher levels of polyphenols. Starch is the main component of rice grain, and it accounts for about 72–82% of brown rice and 90% of milled rice. Native starches have many drawbacks; to improve these properties, starch is generally modified using different physical, chemical, and enzymatic treatments. Functional properties are the basic physicochemical properties of flours, which have a complex relationship between different components of grains. Pigmented rice has desirable functional properties, which are essential for product formulations. Pigmented rice has been reported to have several health benefits including preventing hypertension, gluten-related disorders, and heart diseases; as well as having anti-diabetic potential, antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory activity, and anti-cancer activity. This chapter will highlight the opportunities for developing novel health supplements from pigmented rice flours. Biotechnology is used in various crops, including rice, to improve its desirable properties. In this chapter, we will provide an overview of the nutritional composition, bioactive characteristics, functional properties and health benefits of pigmented rice.