Chapter 14: The Role of Biotechnology in the Production of Pigmented Cereals
Published:17 Feb 2023
A. R. Ishaq, R. Batool, S. Chen, D. Cai, and Asfandyar, in Pigmented Cereals and Millets
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Cereals are a major source of protein and carbohydrates for humans, but significant nutritional elements, such as carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are deficient. Deficiency of PUFAs in humans leads to various syndromes related to the skin, reproductive, nervous, and inflammatory systems. Carotenoids act as a free radical scavengers and antioxidants due to their strong potential to cure many chronic diseases and protect against the effects of aging. Different biological strategies, such as solid-state fermentation and genetic engineering have been devised to synthesize nutritious cereals effectively. This chapter will provide unusual insight into how genetic engineering is beneficial for pigmented cereals products and discuss the limitation of this method. One of the most promising techniques is solid-state fermentation (SSF), in which micro-organisms are grown on a solid substrate in the absence of free water, and stimulate the fermentation process. Because of specific microbes with solid-state fermentation, new commercial opportunities for cereals and their by-products such as carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have emerged.