Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications
Chapter 9: Pigment in Cereals: Extraction, Quantifications, and Characterization
Published:17 Feb 2023
Simmi Ranjan Kumar, Anjelina Sundarsingh, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, 2023. "Pigment in Cereals: Extraction, Quantifications, and Characterization", Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sajid Maqsood, Anil Kumar Siroha
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Cereals are a traditional food for humans, due to the health benefits associated with them.1 Rice, maize, wheat, sorghum and barley are major cereals that are globally produced in significant quantities. Cereals are naturally enriched with various colored pigments such as red, black, purple, brown, blue and pink.2 Color is a primary food characteristic which has played a substantial role in food for many years, to enhance food's appearance and quality. Natural pigments, for instance, anthocyanins, chlorophyll, betalains and carotenoids, provide a wide range of color shades to food.3 Various phytochemicals are found in cereal grains, some of which significantly impact grain pigmentation.4 The fundamental structures of anthocyanins are known as anthocyanidins.5 Anthocyanins are phenolic compounds that give a blue, red, purple or orange color to a range of flowers, fruits, vegetables and cereals. Anthocyanins are well known for their bioactive potential.6 Antioxidation, anticancerous, retinal protection, hypolipidemia, anti-aging, and enhanced gut health are among the numerous health benefits of anthocyanins.7 The anthocyanins are normally extracted from their sources using acidified hydroalcoholic solutions and purified by using chromatographic methods. In order to identify the structure of anthocyanins, nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are predominantly used.7 Carotenoids are categorized as yellowish-orange pigments observed in plants that may be classified into hydrocarbon carotenes and their hydroxylated derivatives, known as xanthophylls.8 Although carotenoids are a minor component of cereals, certain grains have a greater and others a lower amount of carotenoids when compared with vegetables and fruits. Lutein and zeaxanthin are the most plentiful carotenoids found in cereal grains.9 According to several studies, carotenoid-rich diets have been associated with a low risk of various chronic and degenerative illnesses, cancer, cardiovascular disease and age-related macular degeneration.8 Flavonoids are responsible for red pigments in cereal grains and have numerous health benefits, such as alleviating many diseases, such as coronary heart disease and cancer.10 Reverse-phase HPLC and spectrophotometric methods are used for carotenoid and flavonoid separation and quantification.11 Genetic variables, growth factors, and technical procedures influence the color components of grains and grain products.4 Growing consumer awareness, along with a focus on the health benefits of specific food components, has increased the popularity of coloured grains and flours.12 This chapter summarizes cereal pigments, their composition, extraction and quantification.