Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications
Chapter 6: Pigmented Pseudocereals: Chemistry, Functionality, and Technological Aspects in Food Systems
Published:17 Feb 2023
Taha Mehany, Ahmed Taha, Babatunde Olawoye, Sameh A. Korma, Oyekemi Olabisi Popoola, Okon Johnson Esua, Muhammad Faisal Manzoor, 2023. "Pigmented Pseudocereals: Chemistry, Functionality, and Technological Aspects in Food Systems", Pigmented Cereals and Millets: Bioactive Profile and Food Applications, Sneh Punia Bangar, Sajid Maqsood, Anil Kumar Siroha
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The rapid increase in the global population, food insecurity, and people living with degenerative diseases had led to greater demand for functional foods. Functional or nutraceutical food provides nutritional value and can prevent some health conditions.1 These food products can be derived from pigmented pseudocereals (PPs). Pseudocereals (Figure 6.1) are edible grains belonging to species of dicotyledonous that are similar to the real cereals (monocotyledonous of the Poaceae family) in terms of their physical appearance and high starch ratio.2 Pseudocereals are categorized as superlative foods in the 21st century.3 PPs are a promising future food crop due to their ability to adapt to climate change, from tropical to moderate climates; and their high genetic variability. The most important species of pseudocereals are buckwheat (Fagopyrum sp.), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), and amaranth (Amaranthus sp.). Amaranth and quinoa belong to the family Chenopodiaceae that are native to South America in the Andean region. While buckwheat belongs to the Polygonaceae family; genus Fagopyrum, and includes three cultivated species: (a) Tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum); (b) common buckwheat (F. esculentum); and (c) tall buckwheat (F. cymosum), which originated in Western and Central China. Pseudograins are a special trend in the food industry sector because they are a gluten free (GF) and also have an ideal nutritional and functional profile.4 Furthermore, many recent investigations have focused on the health benefits of pseudocereals, showing that these grains are suitable sources for the development of functional food. Table 6.1 shows the comparable nutritional composition of PPs, compared with that of wheat and rice.