Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota
CHAPTER 3: The Microbiome and Amino Acid Metabolism
Published:01 Jul 2022
Special Collection: 2022 ebook collection
N. E. Diether, B. P. Willing, 2022. "The Microbiome and Amino Acid Metabolism", Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota, Joseph F Pierre
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Proteolytic fermentation occurring in the gastrointestinal tract is an important contributor to host health through the microbial metabolites produced. Microbes affect amino acid balance in the small intestine and contribute to the accumulation of bioactive metabolites in the large intestine. These effects are achieved through highly networked metabolic pathways producing a diverse range of end products, including biogenic amines, phenols, and indoles. These metabolic products have been shown to affect inflammation and barrier function within the gut as well as to exert systemic host effects. This array of functions has implicated proteolytic fermentation metabolites in the development of diabetes, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and colorectal cancer. Tryptophan metabolites in particular have an effect on the gut–brain axis through their function as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands. Increased understanding of proteolytic metabolites in recent years has promising implications for our understanding of the role that dysbiosis may play in driving many important diseases.