Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota
CHAPTER 4: Fat Absorption, Metabolism, and Global Regulation
Published:01 Jul 2022
Gut microbes have been associated with a wide variety of normal host functions as well as the development of diseases, including autoimmune, metabolic, and even neurological disorders. These relationships stem from complex host–microbe interactions originating in the gut that extend to distal regions of the body. The goal of this chapter is to provide an overview of gut microbe-mediated regulation of host nutrient digestion, absorption, and whole-body metabolism. We begin with a review of the literature evaluating the overall effects of obesity and westernized diets on the gut microbiota and how the resultant microbiota feeds forward on influencing host digestion and absorption in the gut. The latter part of the chapter will focus on how the gut microbiota regulates metabolism on a global scale influencing peripheral metabolic organs, including the liver, adipose tissue, and muscle. Altogether, this chapter highlights the mechanisms by which gut microbes regulate metabolism both locally in the gut and distally in metabolic tissues.