Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota
CHAPTER 5: Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics in Human Health
Published:01 Jul 2022
Special Collection: 2022 ebook collection
O. L. Wells, S. Mishra, and H. Yadav, in Metabolism of Nutrients by Gut Microbiota, ed. J. F. Pierre, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022, pp. 86-119.
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Emerging research has revealed that the gut microbiome contributes to several human diseases, therefore development of effective gut microbiome modulators such as probiotics, prebiotics and their combination (synbiotics) is critically needed. In this chapter, we summarize the definitions of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics and evidence of their effects on host health and specific disease processes in humans. We describe the role of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic supplementation in specific intra-intestinal and extra-intestinal illnesses including: inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, antibiotic associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile colitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, type 2 diabetes, Helicobacter pylori gastritis and hepatic encephalopathy. The illnesses selected for review were based on the availability of robust data regarding usage of these bioactive supplements under appropriate clinical conditions. We primarily reviewed the relationship between the composition of the gut microbiome, host health, and disease pathology.