Chapter 11: Galangal – a Promising Herb in Ayurvedic Formulations: Phytochemistry and Pharmacological Evaluations
Published:09 Nov 2022
G. C. Nille, S. K. Mishra, O. S. Nille, A. K. Singh, and A. K. Chaudhary, in Chemistry, Biological Activities and Therapeutic Applications of Medicinal Plants in Ayurveda, ed. A. Amalraj, S. Kuttappan, and K. Varma, The Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022, ch. 11, pp. 250-288.
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Galangals, the commonly used designation for three different species, namely Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. (greater galangal), Alpinia officinarum Hance, and Alpinia calcarata Roscoe (lesser galangals), are widely used medicinal plants with a prevalent traditional name, Rasna, in Ayurveda. They are substitutes for each other in the name of Rasna in many Ayurvedic formulations. In the Ayurveda system of medicine, Rasna has effectively been used to manage various inflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, diarrhoea, stomachache, diabetes, dementia, fever, bronchial catarrh, etc. The principal phytochemicals in galangals are alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, saponins, tannins, essential oils, apigenin, chrysin, galangin-3-methyl ether, galangin, zingerone, diterpene, diterpene B, 1,8-cineol, α-pinene, galangoisoflavonoid, 1′-acetoxyeugenol acetate, protocatechuic acid, etc. Galangals are cited for their antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticancer, antispasmodic, antiviral, antifungal, cytoprotective, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, aphrodisiac, antiemetic, antihelminthic, antiulcerative, antidiuretic, antidementia, and antiallergic properties. This chapter aims to provide comprehensive data about galangals by addressing details of the species and their present utility in various Ayurvedic formulations. It also includes their ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, and pharmacological aspects.