2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels
CHAPTER 13: A Comparative Study of 0D, 1D, and 2D Nanocatalysts Towards CO2 Conversion
Published:12 Aug 2022
Arindam Mandal, Subhasis Roy, 2022. "A Comparative Study of 0D, 1D, and 2D Nanocatalysts Towards CO2 Conversion", 2D Nanomaterials for CO2 Conversion into Chemicals and Fuels, Kishor Kumar Sadasivuni, Karthik Kannan, Aboubakr M Abdullah, Bijandra Kumar
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A large proportion of the world's energy results from combustible materials, giving rise to a persistent rise in the release of carbon dioxide and different greenhouse gases into the environment. The above-mentioned gases are responsible for the rising global warming by trapping heat in the environment. The various sources of emission of greenhouse gases into the environment include transportation, electricity production, industry, commercial and residential, and agriculture. The transportation sector generates the largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions, which primarily arise from burning fossil fuel for our cars, trucks, ships, trains, and planes. Electricity production generates the second largest amount of greenhouse gas emissions, arising from burning fossil fuels, mostly coal and natural gas. Greenhouse gas emissions from industry primarily come from burning fossil fuels for energy, as well as greenhouse gas emissions from certain chemical reactions necessary to produce goods from raw materials. Greenhouse gas emissions from businesses and homes arise primarily from fossil fuels burned for heat and handling of waste, while that from agriculture comes from livestock such as cows, agricultural soils, and rice production. Human beings prove to be the main factor behind the release of greenhouse gases since the development of industry. The mean temperature rise has already raised by approximately 1 °C, and the temperature increase continues, a consequence of one of the largest releasers of carbon emitters, mainly carbon dioxide, resulting from industry. Bearing in mind environmental safety and financial perspectives, manufacturing zones have the ability to be in a positioned to take on new systems using carbon dioxide as the prime component. Utilizing numerous alterations, for example, catalytic, electrocatalytic, photothermal, photocatalytic, along with photo-electro catalytic conversion, has become very important due to their capacity for reducing carbon dioxide to different chemicals or fuel-based products like formic acid (HCOOH), methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), methanol (CH3OH), ethanol (C2H5OH), etc. Research in those fields has been increasing in recent years, but that has not been enough for the changes required in manufacturing areas. With regards to the conversion of carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide molecules are soaked up on the catalyst surface, creating the activation energy for CO2 photoreduction for developing intermediate products and then delineates the C–O bonds or the final products. Operation of the electrons to achieve stable conversion of carbon dioxide is very strenuous due to their large reducing capacity of ∼1.90 V. Still in fluidized media, the conversion of carbon dioxide is very strenuous, but having uncovered optoelectronics, particularity and actions are much less. Unfortunately, the efficiencies of the conversions are not great enough in large-scale implementation. This gave rise to extensive research in the last decennium on the production of new substances and their morphologies involving several categories of low-dimensional nanomaterials.1 As electrons travel distinctly, nanomaterials having different dimensions contain dissimilar density of states. For instance, 0D quantum dots, 1D nano-sized ribbons, nano-sized tubes, nano-sized cables, and 2D single-atom-thick materials. The progress that has been observed in the area of 2D nano-sized materials follows the invention of graphene, and this has created extensive research in investigating the use of new types of 2D substances and their morphologies in the environments of CO2 reduction.