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Carbon dioxide (CO2) is thought to be a key cause of global warming and climate catastrophe. Due to dramatically growing meteorological CO2 levels, serious environmental concerns such as the greenhouse effect and climate change have emerged (via ignition of vestige fuel and desertification). Furthermore, by 2050, energy consumption is expected to be about two times what it is now.1  Because of excessive consumption of obtained fossil fuels, global atmospheric CO2 concentration has rapidly risen to 414.11 ppm, considerably over the safe maximum limit of 350 ppm.2 

A potential method for mitigating its harmful effects is to transform CO2 into renewable fuels or valuable compounds. For CO2 transformation, a range of procedures have been already used, including thermal, chemical, photocatalytic, electrocatalytic, and biological conversion. Photocatalytic and electrocatalytic CO2 conversion has a notable role in determining energy disasters and global warming among such methods. Catalysts (photocatalysis or electrocatalysis) are required during the CO2 reduction process due to the slow thermodynamic and kinetic processes. The photocatalytic (light-driven) and electrocatalytic CO2 conversion into value-added chemicals, hydrocarbons, and fuels (carbon monoxide: CO, methane: CH4, methanol: CH3OH, formaldehyde: CH2O and ethanol: C2H5OH)3–5  is a new development. Fundamental ideas, catalytic principles, and reaction pathways linked to photocatalysis and electrocatalysis for the reduction of CO2, additionally a summary of advancements in the rational design of the novel photo- and electrocatalysts for CO2 reduction, are covered in this study.

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