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Global energy consumption will double by 2050, increasing our dependence on fossil fuels in the process. Fossil fuel combustion is predicted to generate 500 tons of CO2 by 2060. Researchers have been working for years to reduce CO2 emissions by converting it into value-added products, like chemicals and fuels. CO2 is an inert gas with a low electron affinity and a high bandgap (13.6 eV). The dissociation of the C=O bond requires a large energy input (750 kJ mol−1), which is only possible under pressure and temperature conditions or using highly efficient catalysts. After discovering graphene in 2004, research on catalysts for CO2 conversion has become a hot topic. Nanomaterials with a large surface area to volume ratio act as catalysts more effectively than their bulk counterparts. The extremely thin thickness of 2D nanomaterials also results in extraordinary electrical and optical properties, which facilitate the process of harvesting energy. In addition, a high density of crystal imperfections like dislocations and point defects can easily be incorporated into 2D materials, which can act as active sites for catalytic reactions. Graphene oxides, graphitic carbon nitrides, 2D metal oxides, MXenes, transition metal dichalcogenides, metal complexes, etc., exhibit promising potential for catalytic CO2 reduction. Chemical conjugates of inorganic and organic compounds are the most effective catalysts in the CO2 reduction reaction. They minimize the cost of using noble elements without compromising efficiency. This chapter addresses 2D hybrid nanomaterials used to reduce CO2 to value-added chemicals and fuels, focusing on their synthesis, properties, applications, and challenges.

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